Space Out stuff

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Navigating NASA's first mission to the Trojan asteroids...
In science fiction, explorers can hop in futuristic spaceships and traverse half the galaxy in the blink of a plot hole. However, this sidelines the navigational acrobatics required in order to guarantee real-life mission success.
Plus we don't have the power source or the engine to do that let!! But One day we will.. that is LA0 2cents. What with all this we can't.LOL Just going into space than the Moon was impossible some 100 years ago
In 2021, the feat of navigation that is the Lucy mission will launch. To steer Lucy towards its targets doesn't simply involve programming a map into a spacecraft and giving it gas money – it will fly by six asteroid targets, each in different orbits, over the course of 12 years.
Lucy's destination is among Jupiter's Trojan asteroids, clusters of rocky bodies almost as old as the Sun itself, and visiting these asteroids may help unlock the secrets of the early solar system. Lucy will encounter a Main Belt asteroid in 2025, where it will conduct a practice run of its instruments before encountering the first four Trojan targets from 2027-2028. In 2033, Lucy will end its mission with a study of a binary system of two Trojans orbiting each other.
Getting the spacecraft where it needs to go is a massive challenge. The solar system is in constant motion, and gravitational forces will pull on Lucy at all times, especially from the targets it aims to visit. Previous missions have flown by and even orbited multiple targets, but none so many as will Lucy.
Scientists and engineers involved with trajectory design have the responsibility of figuring out that route, under Flight Dynamics Team Leader Kevin Berry of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. One such engineer is Jacob Englander, the optimization technical lead for the Lucy mission. "There are two ways to navigate a mission like Lucy," he said. "You can either burn an enormous amount of propellant and zig-zag your way around trying to find more targets, or you can look for an opportunity where they just all happen to line up perfectly." To visit these aligned targets, the majority of Lucy's high-speed lane changes will come from gravity assists, with minimal use of fueled tweaks.
Though Lucy is programmed to throw itself out into a celestial alignment that will not occur for decades, it cannot be left to its own devices. Once the spacecraft begins to approach its asteroid targets, optical navigation is the next required step.
"OpNav," as optical navigation technical lead Coralie Adam refers to it, is the usage of imagery from the on-board cameras to determine Lucy's position relative to the target. This is a useful measurement used by the navigation team to tweak Lucy's route and ensure it stays on the nominal flyby path. Adam works in Simi Valley, California, with KinetX, the company NASA selected to conduct Lucy's deep space navigation.
By using the communications link from the spacecraft to Earth, Adam said, the Lucy team gets information about the spacecraft's location, direction and velocity. The spacecraft takes pictures and sends them down to Earth, where Adam and other optical navigators use software to determine where the picture was taken based on the location of stars and the target. The orbit determination team uses this data along with data from the communications link to solve for where the spacecraft is and where it is expected to be, relative to the Trojans. The team then designs a trajectory correction maneuver to get Lucy on track. "The first maneuver is tiny," said navigation technical lead Dale Stanbridge, who is also of KinetX. "But the second one is at 898 meters per second. That's a characteristic of Lucy: very large delta V maneuvers." Delta V refers to the change in speed during the maneuver.
Communicating all of these navigation commands with Lucy is a process all on its own. "Lockheed Martin sends the commands to the spacecraft via the Deep Space Network," Adam said. "What we do is we work with Lockheed and the Southwest Research Institute, where teams are sequencing the instruments and designing how the spacecraft is pointed, to make sure Lucy takes the pictures we want when we want them."
"The maneuvers to correct Lucy's trajectory are all going to be really critical because the spacecraft must encounter the Trojan at the intersection of the spacecraft and Trojan orbital planes," Stanbridge said. "Changing the spacecraft orbital plane requires a lot of energy, so the maneuvers need to be executed at the optimal time to reach to next body while minimizing the fuel cost."
While Lucy is conducting deep space maneuvers to correct its trajectory toward its targets, communications with the spacecraft are sometimes lost for brief periods. "Blackout periods can be up to 30 minutes for some of our bigger maneuvers," Stanbridge said. "Other times you could lose communications would be when, for example, the Sun, comes between the Earth tracking station and the spacecraft, where the signal would be degraded by passing through the solar plasma."
Losing contact isn't disastrous, though. "We have high-fidelity predictions of the spacecraft trajectory which are easily good enough to resume tracking the spacecraft when the event causing a communication loss is over," Stanbridge said.
What route will Lucy take once its mission is complete, nearly 15 years from now? "We're just going to leave it out there," Englander said. "We did an analysis to see if it passively hits anything, and looking far into the future, it doesn't." The Lucy team has given the spacecraft a clear path for thousands of years, long after Lucy has rewritten the textbooks on our solar system's history.

 

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A Earth type planet orbiting a gas giant planet.In many solar system there are gas giant planet orbit their sun at the same distance as our Earth is.This could be a place for a Earth like planet form and the gas giant planet magnetic field would protect the planet from their Sun's solar winds... .Or we can be look at life on Saturn moon Titian once the Sun enter into it red giant life as our sun long ago destory the Earth and grow pass the Earth orbit and it warm up titian ..
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Well I have some of this art too,
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Life on a exo planet could at any time period,like this planet where its life is much like Earth life during the Cretaceous Marine Animals . If you want how life could look like just look in ours sea.The Earth had many period where most of the life was gone for one reason or another so that the new life could take its place...
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Like one guy said the giant planet moon is where the action is...
 

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Apparently not all supernovas work. And when they fail, they leave behind a half-chewed remnant, still burning from leftover heat but otherwise lifeless: a zombie star. Astronomers aren't sure how many of these should-be-dead creatures lurk in the interstellar depths, but with recent simulations scientists are making a list of their telltale signatures so that future surveys can potentially track them down.
A Failed Chance
Stars die (as in, actually completely die) in a variety of magnificent ways. One way in particular is especially heartbreaking. When two stars are born together, one of the pair will naturally be a little bit larger than the other, due to complete random chance. Bigger stars fuse hydrogen at a higher rate, so they go through their life cycles faster: main sequence hydrogen burning, ballooning red giant, furious helium burning, beautiful planetary nebula, and white dwarf retirement.
The companion of the larger star watches this whole process unfold before eventually following in the footsteps of its stellar sibling. But by the time the second, smaller star itself swells to the red giant stage, sometimes the situation goes dangerously awry. Orbiting the now-smoldering white dwarf that was once a full-fledged star, material from the companion can spill onto the surface, building a thick helium atmosphere.
The white dwarf exists on the edge of a quantum knife, supported by a force known as degeneracy pressure. The only thing preventing it from further collapse is its low mass. Any more and the scales will be unfavorably tipped… which is exactly what happens when it sucks down material onto its surface from a companion. Once the white dwarf reaches a certain critical threshold, the carbon and oxygen of its body begins to fuse in a runaway detonation sequence, releasing all that pent-up potential energy in a single furious blast.
Except when it doesn't.
For reasons that astronomers don't fully understand, not every triggered explosion results in a big splash. Perhaps the enveloping flame front in the initial phases doesn't completely consume the white dwarf. Perhaps enough material accumulates for something interesting to happen but no more. Perhaps strong magnetic fields shunt away energies at the last minute.


(Un)life of a Zombie
These zombie stars lead peculiar lives… or rather, un-lives. They are blazing hot, still smarting from the almost-supernova boo-boo they suffered. No big surprise given the supreme energies unleashed during even an aborted attempt at detonation. In addition, they're quite small, losing most of their mass in the violent outburst, leaving behind a rump ranging anywhere from the mass of the sun to just a tenth of that.
Over time, though, they cool down. After enough time has passed (exactly how long depends on their mass, but it's typically a few million years) they look indistinguishable from a typical white dwarf. And unless an orbiting companion remains, allowing the estimation of mass, the zombies look normal.
So how to pick them out?
A Hunter's Toolkit
It's difficult to spot the failed supernovas that lead to zombie stars, known by the term of Type 1ax, since they're much less luminous than their fully-explosive cousins (for obvious reasons). They were only first spotted in 2002 (in the typical astronomical vein of "hey, that thing looks weird") and since then we've only collected about 50 examples. Based on the meager data we have, anywhere from 5 to 30% of all Type 1a supernovas (the kind where a white dwarf detonates from gorging on the atmosphere of a companion) lead to a zombie star.


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In rare cases, then, we can photograph the before-and-after and catch the birth of a zombie. But is there any way to find the zombie stars themselves, long after their savage formation?
Intriguingly, yes.
The key is a combination of their initial heat and their mix of heavy elements. Typically a white dwarf will be almost entirely carbon and oxygen. But during the detonation event, those elements fuse to much heavier things.
Initially those heavy elements will simply float around the bulk of the zombie, alongside all the unfused carbon and oxygen, and all the radiation trying to escape the hot interior. But different elements respond to radiation in different ways. Through a process known magically as radiative levitation, some elements can work their way up to the surface, buoyed by the constant pressure of the internal radiation.
Once at the surface, they subtly alter the light fingerprint of the star, altering is spectrum. According to recent simulations, the iron-group elements of iron, ruthenium, osmium, and hassium are especially prolific on the surfaces of these zombies.
So if you look at a white dwarf, and it seems a little… metallic… for your tastes, you just might be staring in the face of a zombie.
You see we human still have a lot to learn.When we think we have something figure out the universe said "no you don;t watch this"
 

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A team of space scientists has captured new images of a volcanic plume on Jupiter's moon Io during the Juno mission's 17th flyby of the gas giant. On Dec. 21, during winter solstice, four of Juno's cameras captured images of the Jovian moon Io, the most volcanic body in our solar system. JunoCam, the Stellar Reference Unit (SRU), the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVS) observed Io for over an hour, providing a glimpse of the moon's polar regions as well as evidence of an active eruption.
"We knew we were breaking new ground with a multi-spectral campaign to view Io's polar region, but no one expected we would get so lucky as to see an active volcanic plume shooting material off the moon's surface," said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of the Juno mission and an associate vice president of Southwest Research Institute's Space Science and Engineering Division. "This is quite a New Year's present showing us that Juno has the ability to clearly see plumes."
JunoCam acquired the first images on Dec. 21 at 12:00, 12:15 and 12:20 coordinated universal time (UTC) before Io entered Jupiter's shadow. The Images show the moon half-illuminated with a bright spot seen just beyond the terminator, the day-night boundary.
"The ground is already in shadow, but the height of the plume allows it to reflect sunlight, much like the way mountaintops or clouds on the Earth continue to be lit after the sun has set," explained Candice Hansen-Koharcheck, the JunoCam lead from the Planetary Science Institute.
At 12:40 UTC, after Io had passed into the darkness of total eclipse behind Jupiter, sunlight reflecting off nearby moon Europa helped to illuminate Io and its plume. SRU images released by SwRI depict Io softly illuminated by moonlight from Europa. The brightest feature on Io in the image is thought to be a penetrating radiation signature, a reminder of this satellite's role in feeding Jupiter's radiation belts, while other features show the glow of activity from several volcanoes. "As a low-light camera designed to track the stars, the SRU can only observe Io under very dimly lit conditions. Dec. 21 gave us a unique opportunity to observe Io's volcanic activity with the SRU using only Europa's moonlight as our lightbulb," said Heidi Becker, lead of Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Sensing heat at long wavelengths, the JIRAM instrument detects hotspots in the daylight and at night.
"Though Jupiter's moons are not JIRAM's primary objectives, every time we pass close enough to one of them, we take advantage of the opportunity for an observation," said Alberto Adriani, a researcher at Italy's National Institute of Astrophysics. "The instrument is sensitive to infrared wavelengths, which are perfect to study the volcanism of Io. This is one of the best images of Io that JIRAM has been able to collect so far."
The latest images can lead to new insights into the gas giant's interactions with its five moons, causing phenomena such as Io's volcanic activity or freezing of the moon's atmosphere during eclipse, added Bolton. JIRAM recently documented Io's volcanic activity before and after eclipse. Io's volcanoes were discovered by NASA's Voyager spacecraft in 1979. Io's gravitational interaction with Jupiter drives the moon's volcanoes, which emit umbrella-like plumes of SO2 gas and produce extensive basaltic lava fields.
The recent Io images were captured at the halfway point of the mission, which is scheduled to complete a map of Jupiter in July 2021. Launched in 2011, Juno arrived at Jupiter in 2016. The spacecraft orbits Jupiter every 53 days, studying its auroras, atmosphere and magnetosphere.
The solar-powered Juno features eight scientific instruments designed to study Jupiter's interior structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Juno mission for Bolton. Juno is part of the New Frontiers Program, which is managed at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Lockheed Martin Space built the spacecraft, and SwRI provided two Juno instruments to study the massive Jovian aurora.
There was a mission to send a orbiter to study this moon IO,when NASA was studying mission under it New Frontiers program, but another mission was pick.NASA over 20 idea for mission only can pick 1 these mission are set to cost about 1Biilon cap. There is also the Discovery Program-at the low end cap at around 450million- and the Flagship mission like the Mars Rover which cost over 2 billion...
 
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The most interesting question humanity could came up with is also the most mysterious one: What is outside of the Universe?
Is there even an Outside? Does the known Universe have a border? And what would be behind it? Another Universe?

A very interesting theory I have heard about recently is, that the Universe itself isn't just 3D it has a lot more dimensions.
What if the Universe is formed of 12 dimensions? Even Albert Einstein said, that this would help to understand it better.

The human brain is only capable of thinking in 3D and we'll probably never be able to think in twelve dimensions.
The Quantum Field Theory from the German Physicist Burkhard Heim, says that there's more than just time and space.

So what if it's actually true? What if the Universe doesn't have a body? We can't say for sure if the String Theory is true or not.
That the basic essence of the Universe are one dimensional threads, even smaller than atoms and molecules.

They say, that the Universe could only be there, if someone is observing it and that it changes it's shape from the angle of observation.
The Universe is therefore not flat, neither shaped like a sphere but more like a bubble and this bubble is moving in any direction.

Even if humanity would ever be able to travel with the speed of light or even faster, my question is: How would we know about a border?
Let's say we would fly in one direction to the most farthest point in space, to the edge of the known Universe. How would we know we're there?

How and when exactly would the human brain recognize any limitation of the vast deeps of space? When is the end and where the beginning?
Of course I wonder what lies beyond, but is there even something beyond? If there are other Universes, then where are they?

What was before the Big Bang? Was there even a Big Bang? This theory begins to crumble even more lately.
The laws of nature, the physics of the cosmos itself, would be so precise like hundreds of razor blades stacked onto another.

Nobody can proof anything about the time what happend before the Big Bang, assuming it has happend billions of years before.
If the Big Bang was the beginning of everything, how and when was there any point before it? How could Nothing even exist?

Let's assume there was something before the Big Bang, what was it? Chaos? Nothing? Everything just blank? But how?
I guess this is something that really confines the mind. I mean, even if there is a god, it leads to another question: What was before god?
 

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The most interesting question humanity could came up with is also the most mysterious one: What is outside of the Universe?
Is there even an Outside? Does the known Universe have a border? And what would be behind it? Another Universe?

A very interesting theory I have heard about recently is, that the Universe itself isn't just 3D it has a lot more dimensions.
What if the Universe is formed of 12 dimensions? Even Albert Einstein said, that this would help to understand it better.

The human brain is only capable of thinking in 3D and we'll probably never be able to think in twelve dimensions.
The Quantum Field Theory from the German Physicist Burkhard Heim, says that there's more than just time and space.

So what if it's actually true? What if the Universe doesn't have a body? We can't say for sure if the String Theory is true or not.
That the basic essence of the Universe are one dimensional threads, even smaller than atoms and molecules.

They say, that the Universe could only be there, if someone is observing it and that it changes it's shape from the angle of observation.
The Universe is therefore not flat, neither shaped like a sphere but more like a bubble and this bubble is moving in any direction.

Even if humanity would ever be able to travel with the speed of light or even faster, my question is: How would we know about a border?
Let's say we would fly in one direction to the most farthest point in space, to the edge of the known Universe. How would we know we're there?

How and when exactly would the human brain recognize any limitation of the vast deeps of space? When is the end and where the beginning?
Of course I wonder what lies beyond, but is there even something beyond? If there are other Universes, then where are they?

What was before the Big Bang? Was there even a Big Bang? This theory begins to crumble even more lately.
The laws of nature, the physics of the cosmos itself, would be so precise like hundreds of razor blades stacked onto another.

Nobody can proof anything about the time what happend before the Big Bang, assuming it has happend billions of years before.
If the Big Bang was the beginning of everything, how and when was there any point before it? How could Nothing even exist?

Let's assume there was something before the Big Bang, what was it? Chaos? Nothing? Everything just blank? But how?
I guess this is something that really confines the mind. I mean, even if there is a god, it leads to another question: What was before god?
These are question that human or any other lifeforms out there are asking.
If we last long enough we will have the answers-Other universe is very likely ,and I believe that sometime the two or more do come into our universe.For each universe its has own physics laws,so if a lifeform from other universe might be very hard for us to kill or it might be easy just touch it..
They to believe that this universe we live in now was born when another universe die,,,
They done a few movie -even some space movie.
they done a tv show Slider - where every decision that you made-on another Earth you make a different pick,and so on and on..
One day we will have these answer which would lead to other question unlit one day we would be Gods,Oh well it work on some sy fy.Like on Stargate the ancients created us humans,they become GOD in the since ,they created us to look like them when they was in human form..
Could GOD be like this? An ancient force that is so powerful,its could create everything.At one point its was human like but it live on and on and change into GOD.Now he wasn't the only one ,other ancient being are "bad"

God created many different lifeform before humans,they was the angels and the other side demons and many others they was just giving immortally and knowhow..But God said no maybe this might work some he created human and other,these had to gain knowhow and gain the immortally ,after life form on planet God pick the one that live and give them a soul.I know this didn't answer your question,Part of this came from a old text discover long ago.
 
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The Hubble Space Telescope's premier camera has shut down.
NASA says the camera suspended operations Tuesday because of a hardware problem. Hubble's three other science instruments are still working fine, with celestial observations continuing.
This third incarnation of the camera was installed by spacewalking shuttle astronauts in 2009. NASA says the camera has backup electronics that could be called into action, if necessary.
The camera has captured stunning images of stars, galaxies stretching far back in time and assisted in deep sky surveys. It's also studied objects in our own solar system, discovering some of the tiny moons around Pluto, as well as a 14th moon around Neptune. It takes pictures in both visible and ultraviolet light, as well as near infrared.
The telescope was launched in 1990.
Also
NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) has found three confirmed exoplanets, or worlds beyond our solar system, in its first three months of observations.
The mission's sensitive cameras also captured 100 short-lived changes—most of them likely stellar outbursts—in the same region of the sky. They include six supernova explosions whose brightening light was recorded by TESS even before the outbursts were discovered by ground-based telescopes.
The new discoveries show that TESS is delivering on its goal of discovering planets around nearby bright stars. Using ground-based telescopes, astronomers are now conducting follow-up observations on more than 280 TESS exoplanet candidates.
The first confirmed discovery is a world called Pi Mensae c about twice Earth's size. Every six days, the new planet orbits the star Pi Mensae, located about 60 light-years away and visible to the unaided eye in the southern constellation Mensa. The bright star Pi Mensae is similar to the Sun in mass and size.
"This star was already known to host a planet, called Pi Mensae b, which is about 10 times the mass of Jupiter and follows a long and very eccentric orbit," said Chelsea Huang, a Juan Carlos Torres Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research (MKI) in Cambridge. "In contrast, the new planet, called Pi Mensae c, has a circular orbit close to the star, and these orbital differences will prove key to understanding how this unusual system formed."
Next is LHS 3884b, a rocky planet about 1.3 times Earth's size located about 49 light-years away in the constellation Indus, making it among the closest transiting exoplanets known. The star is a cool M-type dwarf star about one-fifth the size of our Sun. Completing an orbit every 11 hours, the planet lies so close to its star that some of its rocky surface on the daytime side may form pools of molten lava.
The third—and possibly fourth—planets orbit HD 21749, a K-type star about 80 percent the Sun's mass and located 53 light-years away in the southern constellation Reticulum.
The confirmed planet, HD 21749b, is about three times Earth's size and 23 times its mass, orbits every 36 days, and has a surface temperature around 300 degrees Fahrenheit (150 degrees Celsius). "This planet has a greater density than Neptune, but it isn't rocky. It could be a water planet or have some other type of substantial atmosphere," explained Diana Dragomir, a Hubble Fellow at MKI and lead author of a paper describing the find. It is the longest-period transiting planet within 100 light-years of the solar system, and it has the coolest surface temperature of a transiting exoplanet around a star brighter than 10th magnitude, or about 25 times fainter than the limit of unaided human vision.
What's even more exciting are hints the system holds a second candidate planet about the size of Earth that orbits the star every eight days. If confirmed, it could be the smallest TESS planet to date.
TESS's four cameras, designed and built by MKI and MIT's Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts, spend nearly a month monitoring each observing sector, a single swath of the sky measuring 24 by 96 degrees. The primary aim is to look for exoplanet transits, which occur when a planet passes in front of its host star as viewed from TESS's perspective. This causes a regular dip in the measured brightness of the star that signals a planet's presence.
In its primary two-year mission, TESS will observe nearly the whole sky, providing a rich catalog of worlds around nearby stars. Their proximity to Earth will enable detailed characterization of the planets through follow-up observations from space- and ground-based telescopes.
But in its month-long stare into each sector, TESS records many additional phenomena, including comets, asteroids, flare stars, eclipsing binaries, white dwarf stars and supernovae, resulting in an astronomical treasure trove.
"Some of the most interesting science occurs in the early days of a supernova, which has been very difficult to observe before TESS," said Michael Fausnaugh, a TESS researcher at MKI. "NASA's Kepler space telescope caught five of these events as they brightened during its first four years of operations. TESS found as many in its first month."
These early observations hold the key to understanding a class of supernovae that serve as an important yardstick for cosmological studies. Type Ia supernovae form through two channels. One involves the merger of two orbiting white dwarfs, compact remnants of stars like the Sun. The other occurs in systems where a white dwarf draws gas from a normal star, gradually gaining mass until it becomes unstable and explodes. Astronomers don't know which scenario is more common, but TESS could detect modifications to the early light of the explosion caused by the presence of a stellar companion.
All science data from the first two TESS observation sectors were recently released to the scientific community through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore.
More than a million TESS images were downloaded from MAST in the first few days," said Thomas Barclay, a TESS researcher at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. "The astronomical community's reaction to the early data release showed us that the world is ready to jump in and add to the mission's scientific bounty.
George Ricker, the mission's principal investigator at MKI, said that TESS's cameras and spacecraft were performing superbly. "We're only halfway through TESS's first year of operations, and the data floodgates are just beginning to open," he said. "When the full set of observations of more than 300 million stars and galaxies collected in the two-year prime mission are scrutinized by astronomers worldwide, TESS may well have discovered as many as 10,000 planets, in addition to hundreds of supernovae and other explosive stellar and extragalactic transients."
 

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Despite a recent problem with one of its instruments, managers of NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope are confident that the mission can continue to operate well into the next decade.
NASA announced Jan. 8 that the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument on Hubble suffered a hardware problem that forced it to suspend operations. Hubble observations using other instruments will continue, the agency said, while engineers diagnose the problem.
The instrument remains offline, but astronomers and others involved with Hubble at the 233rd Meeting of the American Astronomical Society here said they’re optimistic that the instrument can resume operations in the near future. Potential solutions to the problem range from a simple reset of the instrument to switching to a redundant set of electronics.
“Have no fear, that will be up again soon,” said Tom Brown, Hubble mission manager at the Space Telescope Science Institute, during a session about the future of the telescope at the conference Jan. 10. “Some of the most recent discussions I’ve been having seem to point to not needing to go to those redundant electronics” to fix WFC3.
The rest of the telescope is in good condition. Engineering analyses Brown presented at the conference showed that the instruments and major subsystems have a high probability — in excess of 80 percent — of remaining operational through 2025. “We expect Hubble to be scientifically productive far into the next decade,” he said.
Those subsystems include gyros, the failure of one of which triggered a safe mode in October that kept the telescope offline for three weeks. Hubble currently has three working gyros, and has software developed to shift to one-gyro mode when one the remaining three fails.
Brown said there’s little difference in telescope performance when using one gyro versus two, and shifting to one-gyro mode, using one and then the other, will maximize the life of the telescope. “If we use the last two remaining gyros consecutively,” he said, “their projected lifetimes are all the way through the end of the next decade.”
One-gyro operations do impose some limitations on Hubble operations, including limitations on the ability to track fast-moving solar system objects. “It will scientifically give very similar performance to what we get today” in terms of pointing stability, he said.
Hubble, launched in 1990 and last serviced in 2009, remains in high demand by astronomers. The oversubscription rate, the ratio of time requested on Hubble versus the time available for observations, has been greater than five in recent years, Brown said. Currently about one published astronomy research paper in six is based on either recent Hubble observations or archival data.
“The demand for HST is not slowing down,” said Julianne Dalcanton, a professor of astronomy at the University of Washington, during the conference session. “The oversubscription rate is still high.”
How astronomers use Hubble may change over time, though. Dalcanton said she expected astronomers currently using the telescope for infrared observations to shift to the James Webb Space Telescope and Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, both optimized for infrared observations, when they are launched in the 2020s. That will free up Hubble for more ultraviolet and visible light observations ill-suited for the newer telescopes.
At the same time, new large groundbased telescopes, with mirrors up to 40 meters in diameter, that will begin operations in the 2020s will provide capabilities at visible wavelengths exceeding that of Hubble in some respects, such as detecting faint objects. Hubble, she suggested, could shift to doing more survey work while continuing to support smaller research programs.
“In that landscape, HST’s role for optical imaging is not going to be depth,” she said. “I think where it’s really going to play a role, and what Hubble will continue to offer uniquely from space, is its resolution, its precision and its stability.”
 
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It's too bad, that the James Webb Space Telescope won't be started until March 2021. It should have been ready in Spring 2019 but was pushed back again.
The total costs of the JWST are supposed to be 9.66 Billion Dollars which is a lot more than the previous 3.3 Billion it should have cost. Damn, that's expensive!
But its the largest telescope ever made for astronomy use..There was some problem ..And part of the problem is the way NASA ask for cash for a project-The cheaper it would be the likely to be funded. NASA should had been up front about the real cost and Congress should had just fund it right in the first place ,they place caps force NASA to take cash away from other project mostly from the Planetary budget this is the reason why many time we couldn't go with the other space agency in their projects.The real budget should had been 8Billion not 3B.(when they first asked for the cash) Plus NASA has this We can fix anything and make it happen.There is nothing wrong with this but at time they can't make a problem go away fast and that end up costing more cash..
The thing that is giving them a problem now is the sun shield to keep the telescope in the shadows and cool,it unfolds and they have to get it right,it orbit would be in a halo orbit(L2)-about the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point located about 1.5 million km from Earth, which is four times the distance between the Earth and the Moon. SO no fast trip to get there and fix it plus we don;t have away to get there anyway,,,
The cost of built space telescope is a lot but its the only way to observe many of the waves out there many of them are block by our blanket of AIR.
Infrared light that this telescope would see about 90% is block by our air... the same with UV light which Hubble can see...
 
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  • Near-Infrared Camera, or NIRCam - provided by the University of Arizona
  • Near-Infrared Spectrograph, or NIRSpec - provided by ESA, with components provided by NASA/GSFC.
  • Mid-Infrared Instrument, or MIRI - provided by the European Consortium with the European Space Agency (ESA), and by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)
  • Fine Guidance Sensor/ Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph , or FGS/NIRISS - provided by the Canadian Space Agency.
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NASA still hasn't launched its new James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a successor to the beloved and aging Hubble Space Telescope. But the agency is already preparing for an even bigger and better space observatory to eventually replace JWST.
Four teams of NASA scientists are getting ready to submit their proposals for future flagship-class astrophysics missions — the most expensive of all NASA's science missions. Of the four, only one mission concept will be selected to launch in the mid-2030s.
The four mission-concept studies were detailed here at the 233rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) this week (Jan. 6-10), even though many of the NASA scientists were furloughed due to the government shutdown and unable to attend the conference.
Each of the proposed missions is a space telescope designed to study things like stars, galaxies, black holes, alien planets and objects within Earth's solar system. The telescopes would probe the mysteries of the universe by detecting different wavelengths of light, from low-energy infrared to high-energy ultraviolet and X-ray radiation.
NASA hasn't put prices on the missions just yet, but flagship-class missions typically cost over $1 billion. However, JWST is expected to cost NASA upward of $10 billion after years of delays and cost overruns.
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Although NASA will be responsible for developing and operating the mission, the agency won't actually get to choose which of the four missions it will pursue. Rather, NASA will submit its proposals to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), where a committee will decide which of the missions best suits the priorities of the astrophysics community. The NAS determines those priorities by collecting input from astronomers nationwide and publishing a report called a decadal survey about once every 10 years.
So, what will the decadal committee deem the most popular and important fields of research in astrophysics in the 2030s? What kind of scientific tools will astronomers use to study the cosmos some 15 to 20 years from now? From the Big Bang to the possibilities of life beyond Earth, there's a lot that scientists hope to investigate using space-based instruments. But because NASA operates on a limited budget, not all of the proposed missions will come to fruition. Here's a summary of the four flagship-class missions that are on the table for the 2020 decadal survey.
LUVOIR
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One candidate mission, called the Large UV Optical Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR), is essentially a beefed-up version of the Hubble Space Telescope. Like Hubble, this instrument would observe the universe in ultraviolet, infrared and visible wavelengths of light.
However, with a diameter of about 50 feet (15 meters), LUVOIR's mirror would be more than six times wider than the one in Hubble. This means that LUVOIR would see the universe with six times the resolution of Hubble. And with 40 times the light-gathering power of the older telescope, LUVOIR would see fainter, smaller and more-distant objects.
NASA has come up with two different options for LUVOIR's design. The larger version, LUVOIR-A (described above), would be built to launch on NASA's upcoming Space Launch System (SLS) megarocket. LUVOIR-A is "the biggest we could fit on SLS," Jason Tumlinson, a researcher with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STSci) said during a presentation at AAS on Tuesday (Jan. 8).
SLS, which is also over budget and behind schedule, should launch on its maiden flight sometime in 2020. "If NASA doesn't build that rocket, then we'll go with the smaller version" of LUVOIR — LUVOIR-B, Tumlinson said. This model would have a mirror with a diameter of 26 feet (8 m), and the smaller size would entail a slightly lower resolution than for LUVOIR-A.
LUVOIR is designed to tackle a variety of astronomical research projects, like searching for habitable exoplanets; studying the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies; mapping dark matter throughout the universe; and imaging objects in the solar system, like planets, comets and asteroids. "Regardless of what you're interested in, LUVOIR has an instrument for you," Tumlinson said.
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The Habitable Exoplanet Observatory (HabEx) is designed to do exactly what its name implies: observe potentially habitable exoplanets around sun-like stars.
While looking for "biosignatures" like water and methane, which may indicate the presence of life on another planet, HabEx would also become the first telescope to directly image an Earth-like exoplanet. To be considered potentially "Earth-like," an exoplanet must be terrestrial, or rocky and must orbit its parent star in the habitable zone, where the temperature is just right for liquid water to exist.



HabEx would deploy a large, sunflower-shaped "starshade" to block light from stars that have planets, allowing the telescope to study faint exoplanets in unprecedented detail. The HabEx telescope itself would have a diameter of 26 feet (8 m), but the starshade would be far larger, with a diameter of 236 feet (72 m).
In addition to collecting visible-light images, HabEx would also conduct ultraviolet and infrared observations of the cosmos, making this observatory useful for more than just exoplanet research. Using the same instruments that it would employ for studying exoplanets, HabEx could also observe and map stars and galaxies, study the expansion of the universe, and investigate dark matter.
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A potential successor to NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory is Lynx, a proposed space telescope that would uncover the "invisible" universe by detecting high-energy X-ray radiation that is not visible to the human eye. This means researchers could use the instrument to look for things like supernovas and black holes.
Lynx was designed to peer through space and time to look at the earliest black holes in the universe, allowing researchers to better understand how these objects form and grow. The telescope could also observe the formation and evolution of galaxies and galaxy clusters.
It would also be able to investigate the birth and death of stars and capture "exquisite maps of exploding stars," like Chandra did with its image of Tycho's supernova, said Ryan Hickox, an astrophysicist at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. But with 100 times the resolution of Chandra, Lynx would produce even more-spectacular images, he said. And while Chandra can study stars located up to about 1,300 light-years away, the instruments on Lynx would see more than 16,000 light-years away, or 12.5 times the distance.
With a diameter of about 10 feet (3 m), Lynx would be only slightly larger than Hubble. However, it would be five times larger than Chandra, whose main dish measures only 4 feet (1.2 m) in diameter.
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Last but not least is the Origins Space Telescope, which seeks to answer the big mysteries of life in the universe, like how habitable planets are formed. The Origins Space Telescope would help scientists break down the steps in that process by tracking the ingredients for life from the earliest stages of star and planet formation.
This far-infrared surveyor mission would be able to peer through obscuring dust clouds to get a clear view of stars and exoplanets in star-forming regions. It could be considered a next-generation version of the Herschel Space Observatory, a European mission that observed the universe in infrared for four years before shutting down in 2013.
With a diameter of about 50 feet (15 m), the Origins Space Telescope would be about the same size as LUVOIR and four times the size of Herschel. Like Herschel, this proposed telescope would require a special "cryocooler" system to keep its instruments from getting too hot. By keeping cool, the telescope would increase its sensitivity, and the mission's scientists have said it could be up to 1,000 times more sensitive than any other infrared telescope launched to date.

But only one would be pick because of the high cost of each telescope and each one would take at least 10 years to build this is because of budget/year. a Telescope cost 10 billion.under good condition it would get 1 billion/years but most of the time it would only get about 500million /year. One way around this budget short fall is to get other nation space agency involved in the project ,like the Hubble and JWST...
They could set up a observatory on the Moon this over time would be cheaper because you wouldn't need all that space probe navigation and other system.They would be just like the one on the Earth once build they could be use for centuries just change out the instruments for new model, some else these Space telescope can't do except Hubble. Build on the Dark side of the moon or anywhere on the moon.
 

la0

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I never expected to do so much of this section but I do enjoy astronomy and look through a telescope every chance I get which hasn't be that much do to the bad weather and its too cold for old me anymore..LOL...
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Photo by a non pro using a small telescope.....and CCD devices..Which you can buy today...Unlike old film these devices can save a image and the next night you can take another one and add to the one you took last night many time these photo can take hours /night.Some object are so dim even in large telescope can take hours but this show up on the PC screen.In the old days of film they would take hours and than even more time to process the film....Pros when to CCD device long ago just some 40 years ago they was very large and made of photo tubes (space probe of the time also use this to take photo)(like a old TV tube-light hit it and it create a electrical change and later on used to make a photo)later on the CDD device with Chips start up and quickly took over because of their small size and cost.They become better with time.Now days these CDD device are even place inside non pro telescope.Where the eyepiece is.Just look inside the image of a nebula is there,that telescope cost 1500 for a 4 inch...and all you have to do is point it up in the sky and push a button and it ready togo......No need to learn your way around the night time sky but its good for people in the cities....
There are even model take use USB drives and a eyepiece these are for bright object like planet,the moon and some nebula
 
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Friday, January 11, 2019This hippo-shaped near-Earth asteroid, called 2003 SD220, was spotted by NASA's Goldstone antenna, the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia.

Thursday, January 3, 2019: NASA's New Horizons spacecraft captured this image of the Kuiper Belt object MU69, nicknamed "Ultima Thule," shortly after its close flyby on Jan. 1. At the time, New Horizons was about 92,457 miles (148,795 kilometers) away from the bilobed space rock.Its shape didn't surprise old LA0 because many of these object within the inner solar system had the same shape..

Wednesday, December 26, 2018: The ancient globular star cluster NGC 1466 glimmers in deep space in this new view from the Hubble Space Telescope. This spherical cluster is a collection of stars bound together by their mutual gravitational pull. It lies about 160,000 light-years from Earth in southern constellation of Hydrus and is estimated to be around 13.1 billion years old.

Friday, December 21, 2018: This frosty Martian crater is filled not with snow, but with a huge mound of water ice. Known as Korolev crater, the icy pit is about 51 miles (82 kilometers) wide and is filled with nearly 6,000 feet (1.8 km) of ice. The European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter created this image using a high-resolution stereo camera
Photo below:
Mercury beams through a bright streamer in the sun's atmosphere in this new image from NASA's Parker Solar Probe. Known as coronal streamers, this glaring feature indicates a region of increased solar activity. Parker Solar Probe captured this image using its Wide-field Imager for Solar Probe (WISPR) instrument on Nov. 8, 2018, when it was about 16.9 million miles (27 million kilometers) from the surface of the sun. The dark spots that form a straight line with Mercury are not planets, but a side effect of background correction.
 
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Kogenta Yahiko Haku Ikki
too much for just one guy but you are doing a great job so we enjoy what you gave us, and the little repetitions it is just a reminder for us about the wonders out there.;)
 

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